Invasive Neuromodulation


  • Vagus Nerve and autonomic nervous system stimulation (VNS)
  • Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation (DRG)
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS)

Vagus Nerve and autonomic nervous system stimulation (VNS)

Vagus Nerve Stimulation is a treatment for a wide variety of indications going from depression, epilepsy to autoimmune disorders, obesity and others such as tinnitus etc.

An electrode is implanted in the neck on the left side surrounding the vagal nerve, which is one of the 12 cranial nerves. Apart from hoarseness, few side effects are noticed with this technique. It is yet unknown whether non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation can predict the success rate of invasive, i.e. surgically implanting vagus nerve stimulation.


Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation (DRG)

Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation is a special form of invasive neuromodulation in which the electrode is positioned at the ganglion before the entry point of the peripheral nerve in the spine. This is especially effective for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), inguinal pain or pain along the front of the body.


Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS)

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a technique used to suppress neuropathic pain using electrical impulses transmitted via electrodes. The best candidates for this treatment are patients who suffer medically intractable chronic limb, back or neck pain as a result of irreversible damage to a nerve. Such damage can be caused by severe pressure on the nerve by a herniated disc, which despite adequate surgical removal, persists.